For using mouse models, please refer to
The gut microbiota modulates host amino acid and glutathione metabolism in mice."
The gut microbiota has been proposed as an environmental factor that promotes the progression of metabolic diseases. Here we investigated the global metabolic differences between the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, liver and two fat tissues obtained from conventionally raised (CONV-R) and germ-free (GF) mice using gene expression data and tissue-specific GEnome-scale metabolic Models (GEMs). We created a generic Mouse Metabolic Reaction GEM (MMR), reconstructed 28 mouse tissue-specific GEMs based on proteomics data and manually curated GEMs for small intestine, colon, liver and fat tissues. We used these functional models for revealing the global metabolic differences between CONV-R and GF mice. Based on gene expression data, we found that the gut microbiota effect the host amino acid (AA) metabolism, which lead to modifications in glutathione metabolism. To validate our predictions we measured the level of AAs and N-acetylated AAs in the hepatic portal vein of CONV-R and GF mice. Finally, we simulated the metabolic differences between the small intestine of the CONV-R and GF accounting for the content of the diet and relative gene expression differences using the here presented method, Relative Metabolic Differences (RMetD). Our analyses revealed that the gut microbiota influences host amino acid and glutathione metabolism in mice.
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